Whether CNC machines are large or small, simple or complex, they can be divided into five categories. These five categories are the five basic methods of metal forming. CNC machining processing includes : drilling, turning and boring, milling, grinding and shaping machining. The characteristics of these processing methods are as follows:
Drilling is the process of drilling holes on solid metals with a rotary bit called a twist drill . The CNC lathes used for drilling is called drilling machine. There are also many types and specifications of drilling machines. In addition to drilling, the drilling machine can also carry out other processing. When drilling, the workpiece is clamped and fixed.The bit rotates while drilling into the workpiece.
- Turning and boring
Ordinary lathes are the most common machines for turning parts. Turning is the removal of metal from the workpiece. While the workpiece rotates, the tool cuts along the workpiece.
Boring is a method of enlarging or further processing holes drilled or cast on metal workpieces. Boring on a lathe is accomplished by a single-edged tool which is rotating while feeding into the workpiece.
Milling is the process of rotating tools cutting metal. This cutter has multiple cutting edges, which is called milling cutters.
Grinding is a method of removing metal by using a grinding wheel called grinding wheel. The workpiece is finished by grinding. The workpiece size is accurate smooth after grinding. When grinding a circular workpiece, the workpiece rotates and feeds to the rotating grinding wheel. When grinding flat workpiece, the workpiece moves back and forth while the grinding wheel is rotating . Grinding process is to finish the hard workpiece after heat treatment to achieve accurate size.
- Shaping machining
Gouging, gantry cutting and slotting machine precise planes with single-edged tools. When processing with a shape machine, the workpiece feeds to the cutter, and the cutter moves back and forth on the workpiece. When gantry cutting is used, the cutter cuts into or feeds to the workpiece, and the workpiece moves back and forth under the cutter.